What is meant by use of force continuum, how can it be problematic, and what is the general structure and function of the dynamic resistance response model - Essay Example ce continuum helps both law enforcement officials and the people to know about the extent to which law provides permission to the authorities to use force as a mean to know the truth in interrogation process. Use of force continuum is different in different countries based on the differences in the functioning of criminal justice system. Use of force continuum may become problematic when the law enforcement officials cross the limits in using this law. Some officials misuse their power in the name of this law to torture the suspect. The dynamic resistance response model helps law enforcement officials to use force judiciously based on the circumstances. The official should not use force if the accused or the criminal is ready to obey his instructions. â€œWithin the constitutional parameters established by the Court, most agencies require officers to adhere to more restrictive use of force policies, which, in fact, have not entirely eliminated the controversy surrounding officer citizen encounters as evidenced by continued allegations of misuse of forceâ€ (FBI Law enforcement bulletin, 2007, p.16). For example, drink driving is common in many of the countries. When the police stop such cars, some drivers may not come out automatically. The police can use force if the driver continues to stick with his decision to stay inside the car. To conclude, use of force continuum & dynamic resistance response model provide guidelines to the law enforcement officials and the people with respect to the use of force by the law enforcement officers in certain
As a French sociologist, anthropologist, and philosopher, Pierre Bourdieu focuses on the role of practice and embodiment in social dynamics of power relations in life, which opposes Western traditions. He conceptualizes the notions of habitus and field, which disclose the construction in human society, which, according to him, should not be understood as applying a set of rules. Echoing Michel Foucault and Michel de Certeau, Bourdieu intents to analyze the interrelationship between social structure and social practice. His arguments are around a reconciliation of both external power generated from social structure and internal power produced by subjective individuality. Bourdieu transforms Max Weberâ€™s notion of domination and social orders into his theory of fields, defining field as a setting in which agents and their social positions are located, a system of social positions that are structured in terms of power relationships. Fields, so to speak, â€œprovide themselves with agents equipped with the habitus needed to make them workâ€(1980, 67). Bourdieu thereby claims that society can be seen as the sum of social objective relationships in the conditions of economic production and that it is the social agent should be emphasized in society. Bourdieu, although retaining structuralist concepts of social structures, argues that the reproduction of social structure is not constrained by the logic of social structure. Bourdieu describes habitus as the theory of the mode of the generation of practices. Habitus, according to Bourdieu, which is a â€œproduct of historyâ€ structured based on a set of acquired dispositions, is constituted in practice and is always â€œoriented towards practical functionsâ€(1980, 52-54). That is, habitus ... ...uses construct practical space that organizes social relations ; Calendars structure practical time that organizes social works. System of classification, as embodiment of social order thereby subsumes subjective experiences and naturalizes â€œits own arbitrarinessâ€(1977, 164). Doxa, the state of this naturalization, through censorship and exclusion, preserves a â€œuniverse of that which is taken for grantedâ€(1977, 170) Bourdieu further argues that practices involve â€œa logic made to dispense with conceptsâ€(1977, 116) but should not be described as logical processes. It is, instead of abstract logic, but body movements and actual practice should be analyzed with an investigation on the connection between body movements and classificatory system. The â€œlanguage of the bodyâ€, according to Bourdieu, is more ambiguous to be analyzed than linguistic schemes(1977, 120).